Gynecologic oncology is a specialized field of medicine that focuses on cancers of the female reproductive system. This branch of medicine applies to various stages in malignant tumors like ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer, cervical cancer, and vulvar cancer. Gynecologic cancers are among the most frequent diseases in the world.
Dealing with heart and heart-related diseases, cardiology studies the etiology, development, diagnostics, treatment, and rehabilitation of cardiovascular disorders. This branch of medicine seeks to identify and develop treatment methods for such diseases as heart failure, arrhythmias, myocardial infraction, congenital heart diseases, ischemic heart diseases, heart valve pathologies, coronary artery diseases, arterial hypertension, infective endocarditis, and other cardiovascular pathologies. The diagnosis and treatment of heart disorders, including difficult and complex pathologies, use various methods depending on individual needs.
Dealing with everything concerning the eye and eye diseases, ophthalmology focuses on the diagnostics, treatment, and prevention of eye pathologies. In particular, this branch of medicine concerns the eye as an optic system, namely the study the channels of nerve supply (innervation) of the eye and the centers of vision. Ultramodern medical equipment, constantly upgraded and developed, plays a decisive role in eye surgery. In pace with the rapid development in the 21st century, ophthalmology keeps its finger on eth pulse by developing new methods for the diagnostics, treatment, and rehabilitation of eye diseases.
Dealing with the prevention, diagnostics, and treatment of cancer, oncology studies the origins and causes of cancer, along with clinical development, and develops methods of its treatment and rehabilitation. Depending on the type and stage of cancer, and the patient’s condition, both inpatient and outpatient treatment may be administered. Treatment methods vary by case. As a rule, cancer treatment involves input from medical oncologists and surgical oncologists, also from radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and others.
Orthopedics is a branch of medicine that studies traumas and both congenital and non-congenital disorders of the musculoskeletal system. This complex system, which incorporates bones, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints, and nerves, is vital for physical activity. Orthopedics encompasses: O The diagnostics of damages and traumas of the musculoskeletal system O Medicated treatment, specialized exercises, surgical intervention, and others O Providing information and consultations on the development and prevention of congenital and non-congenital disorders, in order to define the right strategy for subsequent treatment.
Urology focuses on medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system. This branch of medicine comprises seven basic directions: pediatric urology, urologic oncology, renal transplantation, male infertility, bladder stones, female urology, and neurourology. Some of the most widespread urologic diseases include kidney and bladder stones, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic tumor, renal cancer, also testicular, bladder, penile, and urethral cancers, sexual dysfunction, infertility, urinary tract infections, and others.
Radiology uses sources of ionizing radiation to study the human body, and to identify and treat various diseases. This branch of medicine incorporates radio diagnostics, X-ray radiography, ultrasound, radiation therapy, megavolt therapy, radiobiology, radio genetics, interventional radiology, and radiation chemistry. For diagnostics purposes, radiology uses ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and other medical technology.
Liver Transplantation is an operation that replaces a patient's diseased liver with a healthy liver from a living or deceased donor. This method is believed to be the only way to save the life a patient with a diseased liver. As a rule, transplantation is performed in end-stage liver diseases, when the organ that no longer function is replaced. Besides failure to perform its functions, a damaged organ is harmful for the entire system, which is why it must be removed. Liver transplantation, especially from a living donor, is considered a complex operation.
Otorhinolaryngology is a multifaceted branch of medicine that includes various manipulations. It focuses on the identification, treatment, and management of conditions of the ear, nose, and throat, trachea, bronchi, paranasal sinuses, and related structures of the head and neck. Otorhinolaryngology also studies tumors of the head and neck. Using optical devices, ear, nose, and throat, trachea, bronchi, paranasal sinuses are examined. Also, different manipulations and surgical interventions are performed. To treat various diseases, otorhinolaryngology actively uses microsurgery.
In vitro fertilization involves combining an egg with sperm outside the body, in a laboratory. An embryo received through this assisted reproduction method is transferred into a uterus. In vitro fertilization consists of three main phases: ovarian stimulation, follicular aspiration, and embryo transfer. Couples turn to fertilization if various methods of treatment have failed to yield results. In vitro fertilization is successfully used among Women with damages or blocked fallopian tubes Men with problematic genetic material Couples unable to conceive in the past three years for no apparent reason Couple with an unsuccessful intrauterine insemination experience.
Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body and body parts. This branch consists of two major directions: aesthetic surgery, which serves the purpose of improving overall appearance, and reconstructive surgery correcting congenital and non-congenital functional defects, and impairments caused by traumatic injuries.
Vascular Surgery is the branch of medicine that studies the vascular and lymphatic systems (arteries, veins, lymphatics, and diseases related to them. Arterial diseases include aortic aneurysm, aortic dissection, embolism, vasculitis, and others. Venous diseases include venous thrombosis, chronic venous insufficiency, and varicose veins. Lymphatic diseases include lymphocytosis, both primary and secondary. In addition, vascular surgery also focuses on preventing such cardiovascular disorders as ischemic stroke. To treat vascular diseases, vascular surgery employs both conservative and surgical methods, the latter meaning open and endovascular operations. Timely diagnostics and treatment guarantee the prevention of painful complications.
Gynecology is the study of the physiology and pathology of the female genitalia, their psychiatric aspects, and the reproductive system. This branch of medicine is closely tied to obstetrics, the field focusing on pregnancy and childbirth. Gynecologic laparoscopy plays a vital role in gynecology, and 90% of the gynecologic surgeries employ laparoscopy. The main purpose of laparoscopy is to minimize invasiveness while maximizing the effectiveness of surgical treatment. Using small incisions (0.5 mm), laparoscopy allows for penetrating the abdomen with the aid of a camera for diagnostics, or of other tools in case of a surgery. The method of laparoscopy can be used for hysterectomy, uterine-preserving manipulations, also various surgeries on multiple myeloma, benign ovarian tumors, and others.
Neurosurgery is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system, also studying ways of surgical correction. Neurosurgery, for its part, incorporates five areas: Neuro-oncology Cardiovascular neurosurgery Functional neurosurgery Spinal and peripheral neurosurgery Pediatric neurosurgery.
General surgery is a common basis for all surgical specialties. This discipline of surgery focuses on the abdominal components, including the gastrointestinal tract, colon, pancreas, liver, gall bladder and bile ducts. Besides, general surgery covers mammary glands, skin, soft tissues, head, neck, endocrine system, surgical oncology, and injuries. In short, general surgery includes the diagnosis and treatment of congenital and acquired diseases of various organs that require surgical treatment methods. Owing to achievements in medicine, laparoscopic surgery occupies a special place in general surgery, which allows the treatment of diseases by penetrating the abdominal cavity through a minimal incision.